“Was the Early Arabian ‘Ūd ‘Fretted’?” is “an erudite and impressive piece of scholarship. The author persuasively demonstrates that the early ʿūd was unfretted but that tie-frets may have been used for teaching or training purposes. Beyhom’s argument has important implications for not just Islamic and Western organology but indeed for the critical work of recognizing early Arabian treatises on praxis as central to the development of Greek and, therefore, to the development of European musical systems. The extraordinary analysis of primary source material that made this article stand out within a strong field of candidates exemplifies crucial considerations in organology, musicology, and music theory today.”
Amine Beyhom trained as a civil engineer as well as a musician (guitars and bass) and a composer. After obtaining his MA from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC) in Paris, he worked as a research engineer in France, then changed the course of his life to become a professional musician and composer, firstly in France then in Lebanon, while learning the ʿūd and founding his own music production company. He completed his PhD in 2003 at the Sorbonne University, Paris, and his Habilitation at the same university in 2010. He later received the title of Professor in Music and Musicology.
Dr. Beyhom has published articles on numerous topics including Byzantine chant, the theory of music, and Orientalism in musicology. He has taught at universities in Lebanon and France, and in 2011 he founded the Centre for Research on the Music of Arabian and Akin countries (CERMAA), which he still leads. In 2018 he established [the] VIAMAP (the Video Animated Music Analysis Project), which has produced more than sixty video analyses. He was awarded the Lois Ibsen Al-Faruqi triennial Award by the Society for Ethnomusicology in 2017. He is active as a music analyst and videographer, as Chief Editor of Near-Eastern Musicology Online, and as the head of the CERMAA research center. He is delighted to conduct workshops with international students on various themes, the last to date (before Covid) being about Artificial Intelligence and Music.
The Tebb-e Dārā Shokuhi is a medical treatise written by a Persian scholar of the Mughal court. It includes a chapter on the art of music considered in particular for its therapeutic properties. The article highlights principal points of this text and identifies its many borrowings from earlier music treaties. The author, who was born in India, had the opportunity to compile these sources, which attest of the wide diffusion in Northern India of the Persian musical culture and of the Greater Khorasan.
The author proposes a stylistic study of the song “Anta ʿUmrī” composed par Muḥammad ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb and sung by Umm Kulthūm. Through techniques used by the composer along with Kulthūm’s interpretation, she demonstrates the coexistence within the song of traditional and modern elements. Additionally, she proposes the complete score of a performance of this song which is accessible on the web.
Nemo-Online a le plaisir d’annoncer la publication du n°10 de la revue, avec trois articles par Amine Beyhom (en Anglais), Jean During (en Anglais) et Hanene Gharbi (حنان الغربي – en Arabe).
Le Tebb-e Dārā Shokuhi est un traité de médecine d’un Persan de la cour moghole. Il comporte un chapitre sur l’art musical envisagé notamment pour ses propriétés thérapeutiques. L’article fait ressortir les points originaux de ce texte et relève ses nombreux emprunts à des traités de musique antérieurs. L’auteur, qui était né en Inde, avait eu la possibilité de compiler ces sources, ce qui témoigne de la large diffusion en Inde du Nord de la culture musicale de Perse et du Grand Khorasan.
L’auteure propose une étude de style sur la chanson “Anta ʿUmrī” composée par Muḥammad ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb et chantée par Umm Kulthūm. Elle démontre, à travers les techniques employées par le compositeur – alliées à l’interprétation de la chanteuse –, une coexistence au sein de la chanson entre phrasés traditionnels et modernes. Elle propose également la partition complète d’une interprétation de cette chanson accessible sur internet.
Four Lebanese cantors of Byzantine chant – Fr. Nicolas Malek, Fr. Makarios Haidamous, Joseph Yazbeck and a cantor who preferred to remain anonymous – accepted to record (among other performances) the scales of the eight canonical modes of their liturgical chant for research purposes. Each of them is a renowned soloist and choir director in Lebanon.
The complete results of the analyses of these recordings are proposed in the aforementioned book, while particular results concerning the first mode were presented on various occasions in Greece and in Cyprus, but also in France, Tunisia and in Lebanon.
The analyses in the videos are based on these presentations, which in turn were based on power point animations proposed in the aforementioned book.
Each video comprises a short theoretical introduction contextualizing the scales of the current mode within the general frame of the 19th-Century Second Reform of Byzantine chant.
Moreover, the first video (for the First mode) features a General Introduction which explains shortly:
The solmization of the Byzantine – and equivalences between Byzantine and Western – degrees of the scale
The accidentals used in the theory of the Second Reform (and in the Western/Byzantine notation proposed by the author)
The scores and literal notations
(And) Explanations about the graphic representation of the results
This 46th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series (but the 47th to be made public – see http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/1433) features 3D graphic techniques as well as a short introduction explaining the scale used in the analysis. It is a demonstration of some of the possibilities offered by 3D handling of graphic analysis of melodies, on the example of a Huseynî Taksim performed by Neyzen Tevfik Kolayli, corresponding to track 11 on the CD 199 Kalan Müzik entitled Hiç’in Azâb-ı Mukaddes’i – Neyzen Tevfik (2000-2001).
Note that a preliminary version was published privately February 8, 2019 on the YouTube channel of the CERMAA.
The last sequence preceding the end credits proposes the following text:
now imagine what it would be if we could… apply 3D graphic analysis and animation to all aspects and characteristics of sound stop, rewind, slow down the music and animation at will zoom in, zoom out, keep selected characteristics and look up each and all details from the desired point of view and, finally, apply all these to the analysis of multi-part music with each part shown separately, or together with other parts…
Amine Beyhom – “Imagine, a scientific fantasy”
A CERMAA production
Analysis, graphic design and editing: Amine Beyhom
Notes for the graphic representation
The pitch contour is shown as a black broken line in the 2D analysis, and in blueish color in the 3D analysis, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. In the 3D analysis, the pitch and intensity contours are showed in two parallel planes with a corresponding cursor for each of them. The graphic scale (see figure below) is based on on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals) and features to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here, and below), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, dū = DŪKĀ = d, sī = SĪKĀ = e–, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = b– and Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic (here dū) is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables.
Excerpt from the liner notes: [p. 51, 53]
Neyzen Tevfik Kolayli was one of the most interesting and unusual personalities of Turkish Music, and is remembered as one of its “legendary heroes”. He was born in Bodrum on March 28, 1879, and died on January 28, 1953 in Istanbul, at the age of 74. His life was a series of adventures that might seem startling or at least incongruous to the common person. He might be found playing his ney one day in the Grand Vizier’s mansions with the repose of a king, and the next day on the street, a handkerchief spread out in front of him, playing for drinking money. […]
He was smitten at the early age of 7 by the voice of the ney, and was so bound by his passion for this voice that it was the most basic element of his existence. From surviving recordings, as well as awe-filled testimonies of those writers who heard him play, we can gain some idea of how that passionate bond moved him.
Mehmet Ergün – Translated by Bob Beer
Literal description of the performance
Note in the analysis below that s_a = “Analysis time in seconds”; s_v = “Video time in seconds”; “tpps” = “Theoretical Position of the Pitch on the Scale”; furthermore, the upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or genos) rāst (lowercase). Further explanations can be found at http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/1238 and http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/1273.
Note also that, due to two factors which are the accompanying cello and the bad condition of the recording, all details of the analysis could not be reproduced and that the reproduction of the tonic of the scale performed by the neyist may – among other characteristics – be slightly influenced by the (lower) tonic performed with the cello (see figure below in which the tonic is too low around 70 s_a).
On the general ascending scale of maqām Ḥusaynī
dū (d) 3344334 (in multiples of the quarter-tone –
concatenated) the performer begins with a jump of fourth from dū (d) to na (g) then to the fifth ḥu
(a) and ascends to the upper Ja (F)then exposes the
descending scale till lower Rā (C) (thus defining the span of the performance,
i.e. one octave + fifth, with exceptional rises to the upper Na
– G – at 130 and 137 s_a) while returning to the central ḥu
(a) and stabilizing around it with various developments until the return (at 51
s_a) to the tonic. Follows a display of the different subdivisions of the maqām scale and a display of virtuoso techniques, including an
extended (in time) portamento from (below) the upper Ja (F) to the upper dū (d) [111-119 s_a] followed by
developments on rā (c) (c. 130 s_a – probably a jins
rāst 433 leading to the upper Na – G), while returning to the main development of the scale
from 152 to 162 s_a (with modulations) followed by the conclusion of the performance
(164-188 s_a) on the tonic dū (d).
Parts I and II are balanced (about 80
seconds each) with a shorter (25 seconds) conclusive part.
A (more) Detailed analysis:
Part I from 0 to 79 s_a (77 to 156 s_v): The initial sub-part (I.I) of Part I of the performance consists in a development of the scale of maqāmḤusaynī with an initial jump of fourth from dū (d) to na (g) then a call from fourth to the fifth ḥu (a – 1-2 s_a) followed by a modified bayāt genos [ḥu – a – 33–4 + 33] resulting in a low rā in portamento to the “tpps” (“Theoretical Position of the Pitch on the Scale”) around 7 s_a (see also at 9 s_a), then a descending development of the scale from the octave tonic Dū (D) suggesting a būsalīk aspect of the descending na to dū (g to d) part [424 on dū=d] – because of the low na (g), ja (f) and dū (dū=d is frequently, if not systematically, lower than the tpps which confirms the handling of the maqām as a plagal maqām Bayāt centered on ḥu=a). Rise beg. 11 s_a at DŪKĀ– (t-zi=d–) in būsalīk  with always low ja (t-bū=f–) and na (t-ḥij=g–) – note also the low nā (g–) at 15 s_a. Then comes a descending development of the upper genos bayāt (beg. 16 s_a) with beautiful descending portamentos from aw+ (b) to ḥu (a) around 18 and 20 s_a, with a concluding first part (21-30 s_a) with a confirmation of the lower būsalīk on t-zi (=d–) closing on ḥu (26-28 s_a). Note: sī (e–) and ḥu (a) are here pivotal notes which remain stable throughout this first part.
The second sub-part (I.II) starts with a similar initial call from fourth to fifth while it however hints a lower na (“n-na”=t-ḥij=g– at 29.5 s_a) with a similar also hint of low rā (“n-rā”=t-ka=c–) rising to rā (c) at around 35 s_a – repeated around 37 s_a – during the development of the upper bayāt (ḥu=a 334). In the descending development of this genos undertaken by the performer beg. 37 s_a, a ʿaj=bb (“n-aw” is first hinted, then confirmed at 41 s_a in what becomes a descending nahawand (or būsalik) genos on na [na=g 424] extended below to the ja=f [ja 4424] which transforms it in a ʿajam tetrachord on ja=f (43-44 s_a) and back (45-49 s_a) to bayāt  on dū=d and a confirmation of ḥu=a as pivotal degree of the scale, and closing (around 51 s_a) on t-bū (f–). In both upper and lower part of the scale, for these two initial sub-parts (from 0 to 50 s_a), subtle changes in pitches and the use of portamentos create constant variations between the use of lower (than ḥu=a) bayāt [dū=d 334] and būsalīk [dū–=d– – or t-zi 424] tetrachords with a definite tendency to shift from “minor” (nahawand or būsalik) to “zalzalian” (bayāt tetrachord) with occasional hints of “major” (ʿajam tetrachord) aspects, the latter being underlined by the change in the accompaniment by the cello (from predominant ḥu=a to ja–=f–=t-bū) at c. 50 s_a.
While the third sub-part (I.III) starts like the first two with a na-ḥu (g-a) call, it concentrates at first (around 60 s_a) on the upper part of the scale with a development of rāst  on rā (c), immediately followed by a reaffirmation of the Ḥusaynī character of the maqām with a hint of rāst  on na=g (63 s_a) centered on ḥu=a and with a closing bayāt  on dū=d reaffirming the (lower, around 71 s_a) tonic of the maqām, followed (73 s_a) by a reversed jump from ḥu to na (a to g) and a brisk display of the ascending (from aw to Ja – b– to F) then (complete) descending scale, closing (78 s_a) with the dū (d).
Part II from 83 to 162 s_a (160 to 239 s_v): The different feeling of the second part (beg. 83 s_a) is announced by a jump of fourth from na to rā (g to c) with a development of the (upper) rāst [rā=c 433] and a rapid display of the (descending till lower Rā=C) scale stabilizing on (the upper) rā=c (93-94 s_a), then a variation stabilizing on the (upper) Dū=D with a pentachordal rāst [na=g 4334] closing (108 s_a) the first sub-part II.I. Follows (beg. 110 s_a) the second (II.II) sub-part which consists in an approach of the upper rāst [rā=c 433] from below the tpps with a beautiful rising then descending portamento from t-Bū=F– to Ku=Eb stabilizing on Dū=D after tackling the lower two degrees, and variations in the upper bayāt [Dū=D 33] beg. 120 s_a and a virtuoso display of the (descending then ascending) lower octave + 1 (reaching the lower Rā=C) scale insisting (around 127 s_a) on the unresolved (upper) rā=c and upper rāst [rā=c 4334] with a nearly continuous descending portamento from (upper) Ḥu+(A+) to (lower) ḥu–=a– (137-140 s_a) which shifts (140 s_a) to a trill between aw=b– and rā=c followed by a very short (in time) ascending bayāt [ḥu=a 334] stabilizing on Dū=D (142 s_a), and a modulation to kurd on ḥu=a [ḥu 244] from 143 to 148 s_a, suddenly modulating (with a change in the accompaniment) to rāst  on na stabilizing (149 s_a) on rā=c, followed (152 s_a) after a short silence by a būsalīk  on dū=d beginning (and insisting) on the central bū=eb, and closing with a double ascending call of fifth from (lower) Rā to na (C to g) then na=g to (upper) Dū=D (155-158 s_a) followed by a descending call of octave and a closing ascending call of fifth (159 s_a) from dū=d to the stabilized ḥu=a.
Part III: Conclusion from 164 to 188 s_a (241 to 265 s_v): The closing part is initiated by a jump of third (165 s_a) from na–(g–) to aw+(≈b) ascending to Dū=D followed by the display in portamento (167-170 s_a) of the descending scale of the maqām till the central (“plagal”) tonic ḥu=a then an ascending pentacordal rāst  on na=g, followed (170-173 s_a) by the descending scale featuring a bū=eb in place of the ja=f, followed (175-183 s_a) by variations between būsalīk  and bayāt  on dū=d with a (pre-) final (ascending) call of octave Ḥu-ḥu (A-a) and a final descent (184-187 s_a) from the ḥu=a to the tonic dū (d at 187-188 s_a).
This 47th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series is an anniversary video to commemorate the beginning of video-analyses at the CERMAA. It features 3D graphical techniques as well as a short introduction explaining the scale(s) used in the analysis. It is a sequel to the 46th video-analysis – the first in the 3D series – the publication of which is delayed. It is also a 3D remake of the first video-analysis by the CERMAA, featuring an alternate take of Hurrian Song H6 performed by Lara Jokhadar and arranged by Richard Dumbrill, Amine Beyhom and Rosy Azar Beyhom in 2012. Further details are explained below (the scale) and in the video as such, as well as in the original post for the first video-analysis.
The last sequence preceding the end credits proposes the following text:
now imagine what it would be if we could apply 3D graphic analysis and animation to all aspects and characteristics of sound; stop, rewind, slow down the music and animation at will, zoom in, zoom out, keep selected characteristics and look up each and all details from the desired point of view and, finally, apply all these to the analysis of multi-part music, with each part shown separately, or together with other parts…
Amine Beyhom, “Imagine – A scientific fantasy”
3D video-analysis of Hurrian Song H6 performed by Lara Jokhadar: take 4 recorded on the 21st of October 2012 by Amine Beyhom
This 45th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series features an introduction explaining the basics of video-analyses for maqām music. Note that this analysis is included under “maqām“and not under “Byzantine” analyses, due to the particular scale of the chant.
Video-analysis of the takhshefto (“supplication”): “Like the Merchants” Akh tagorye hʾachirye 4:50+ trimmed (caudal silence) to 4:48, performed by Evelyne Daoud (Evlīn Dāwūd), recorded in the town of Qamishli (North-east Syria)
Analysis and editing: Amine Beyhom
Special thanks to Hamdi Makhlouf and Saad Saab for their insight for the maqām analysis, and to Aboud Zino who kindly provided additional historical and descriptive material concerning this chant and the performer
A CERMAA production
Notes for the graphic representation
The pitch contour is shown as a black broken line, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. Score scales are based on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals). The graphic scales are based on the same intervallic division and feature to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, dū = DŪKĀ = d, sī = SĪKĀ = e–, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = b– and Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables. The upper stripe features a division of the vertical space based on the tonic and its octave (red horizontal lines, plain for the tonic), the fourth (green dashed line) and the fifth (blue dashed line). Note also that s_a = “Analysis time”; s_v = “Video time”. The original tonic is dū = DŪKĀ, which corresponds to an unstopped string of the ʿūd.
The upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or jins) rāst (lowercase).In both literal analysis and annotations to the graphical analysis numbers between brackets are additional bordering intervals used (or not used) in performance; for example, a rāst tetrachordon NAWĀ = na will be noted na 433 if the performer uses one-interval extensions for the original tetrachord rāst 433 on RĀST. The rest note of the tetrachord is always na but the performer may use a lower interval of one tone (“4”) between f and g, and a higher one-tone interval between Rā = upper RĀST = KIRDĀN = c’ or (C) and Dū = upper DŪKĀ = d’ (or D). In a similar way, a ḥijāz tetrachordon DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 26 if the performer does not use the upper semi-tone of the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262 (the ) in the described performance.
Preliminary research and analysis
From the CD Syrian Orthodox Church – Antioch Liturgy (1983/1992) D 8039 Auvidis-Unesco (rights of the recording acquired to date by Smithsonian Folkways Recordings).
Track and liner notes courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings
Excerpt from the liner notes: [p. 5]
This is another takhshefto (supplication) based on the sixth mode according to the tradition of Tur ʿAbdin [Ṭūr ʿAbdīn, طور عَبْدِين] (the equivalent of the maqām ʿajam) which, due to its melismatic character, does not function at all like a qinto [melodic style], but is rather in the spirit of the maqām.
Like the merchants, the martyrs entered into battle. They shed their blood in order to obtain spiritual wealth, in the manner of skilled merchants. They bartered their lives for death, preferring torment to rest. They chose death rather than a short life. They are in the kingdom, guests of the son of the King and we are invited to participate in the feast, proclaiming: Glory to thee, Ruler of the Universe
Note on the title (incipit): the word hʾachirye is pronounced “kashīrīh” by the singer as can be read in the “Karshuni” (translitteration of Syriac in Arabic) version “Akh tagorye hʾachirye” (below) listed as No. 419 in the book The Bread of Life published in 2002.
More about the chant (freely translated from a private communication by Aboud Zino – See also at the end of the post the Arabic translation and the original Syriac version) …
The takhshfotho (pl. of takhshefto) are a melismatic, non-measured type of chants which span a complete octave. This particular type of takhshfotho is attributed to Bishop Rābūlā a-r-Rahāwī (“Bishop Rabola of Raha”) who died 425 CE. These were gathered and classified by one of the fathers of the Syriac Church, Jacob the Rahawite (Yaʿqūb a-r-Rahāwī) who died in 708 CE.
… and about Evelyne Daoud (same source as above)
Malfonito Evelyne Daoud (1935-2002) was a respected Lebanese cantor of the Syriac Orthodox Church who lived in Qamishli in Syria. She was very active in Church life, including teaching and scout movement.
Video Analysis (updated 22/01/2019)
On the general ascending scale of what the analyst called maqām Syriac Bayāt (equivalent to the scale of maqām Ḥusaynī dū 3344334) the singer begins with a jump of third from dū to ja slightly lower than the theoretical pitches corresponding to the first (more or less) stabilized tonic measured around 7 s_a rising then to na to complete the jins bayāt 334 on dū and concludes this introductive section of the first part on the tonic [end at 11.5 s_a]. Follow then [14-38 s_a] in a very linear manner a jahārka trichord ja 44 with a brush of the aw, a rāst 433 on na with occasional brushes of the ja and a stop on ja for what may be understood as a transitory (and intricated) jahārka 44 in trichord (skimmed from the usual caudal semi-tone when tetrachordal) then by a conclusive bayāt 334 on dū. This first part is similarly concluded [40-53 s_a] by a jahārka trichord on ja intricated with however a bayāt trichord 33 on dū.
The second part [55-103 s_a] has a similar structure (as with the first part). The third part [105.5-142 s_a] is initiated with a (near) jump of fourth on the (upper) rā and features a jins rāst 433 on na with a rest on this secondary tonic, the whole repeated once, followed after a silence directly by [144.5-193 s_a] a jins bayāt which announces the remake (here by the same performer) of Part 1, 3, and 1 [Parts 4, 5 and 6]. (Note a clear tendency to raise the final na for jin rāst on na.)
About the recording
The recording was made ca 1980 (or before – estimated). The original LP was released in 1983, and the CD version in 1992, but the liner notes (by Christian Poché, [p. 3]) say that the first track was recorded in Damascus: the former “Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, who died suddenly on 25 June 1980, celebrates in this track the prayers of consecration”. However, the web page featuring the extract of this song on the Smithsonian Folkway Records website says that the original album was released in 1971 under the title Ritual Chant and Music with the catalog number UNES08103_114, as Track 14 (the caudal number 114 seems to indicate the CD number “1” and track number “14”) with duration 3:58… However, the web page of the album and the release tab list August 10, 1996 as the first release.
Track 14 in D 8103
was clearly picked up from D 8039 (Track 7), as the CD rank numbers indicate
(8039 comes before 8103). The back cover (last line) of D 8103 (above) also
states that recording copyrights (℗) for this compilation range from 1971 to
1996, which would explain the confusion on the track page.
 The sixth mode in the Greek-Orthodox tradition is a plagal mode the scale of which is equivalent to the scale of maqām Ḥijāz-Kār (d 2 6 2 4 2 6 2 in an ascending scale expressed in approximate multiples of the quarter-tone).
 The scale corresponds theoretically to (ascending) 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 on bb for maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān in multiples of the quarter-tone, and to (ascending) 3 3 4 4 4 2 4 on d for maqām ʿAjam as such (without the caudal ʿUshayrān which points to bb as a tonic).
 “Sanctus” from the tradition of Mardin, Tagrit, Urfa.
About the Tur ʿAbdin tradition and the Syriac oktoechos (liner notes p. 3)
The tradition of Tur ʿAbdin, tenaciously upheld in the Syrian border town of El qamishli (Syria), is a reflection of the remarkable golden age of Syriac, from which it has assimilated the various tendencies.
The Syrian Church, as is the case for all the eastern Christian communities, groups its melodic styles (qinti) within an overall unit (oktoechos, or set of eight modes), also known as ikhadia, and indicates the mode to be used for each Sunday of the year, rising every week by one scale degree.
The Syriac word ikhadia was formed from the Greek ikhos, meaning “sound” and athos, meaning “chant”. It refers to simple melodic formulae which, by virtue of the historical developments, have begun to relate to the Arabic notion of maqām, without adopting all its aspects, however.
The bet-gazo, or treasure of melodies, also known as shimo, or ferial breviary, is a compilation of non-biblical texts used as reminders for the deacons.
In practice, it is impossible to generalize the use of the eight modes throughout the community. Experience shows that the oktoechos varies in terms of the nomenclature of its scales according to province. It is as though a practice, patterned after the musical dialects stemming from local customs and usage, corresponded […] to a universal theory of oktoechos.
At first sight (listening) the scale is composed of two sometimes slightly shrunk bayāt tetrachords with central disjunction – sometimes wide – and a steadily changing tonic. This is equivalent to the scale of maqām Ḥusaynī as explained for example under maqām Bayātī (no. 59 p. 118-119) in
Ḥilū (al-), Salīm سليم الحلو. الموسيقى النظرية Al-Mūsīqā a-n-Naẓariyya [La Musique Théorique]. 2nd ed. بيروت – لبنان Beyrouth – Liban: منشورات دار مكتبة الحياة Dār Maktabat al-Ḥayāt, 1972, p. 119
but also in
Erlanger, Rodolphe (d’). La Musique Arabe (5) – Essai de Codification Des Règles Usuelles de La Musique Arabe Moderne. Échelle Générale Des Sons, Système Modal. Vol. 5. 6 vols. Paris, France: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1949, scale under no. 57, p. 240
MaqāmʿAjam is frequently equated today with maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān with the scale bb4 4 2 4 4 4 2; maqām ʿAjam per se (without the caudalʿUshayrān) may have an equivalent scale to maqām Bayāt (3 3 4 4 2 4 4 – see Erlanger no. 62 p. 250) but would be notably distinguished by the necessary use of aʿajam tetrachord (4 4 2) or trichord (4 4) on bb and of a jahārkā tetrachord (4 4 2) on f. However, the use of NAWĀ = na = g as a secondary (if not first) tonic and the rare use of the upper DŪKĀ (MUḤAYYAR) = Dū = d’ argue in favor of a tetrachord rāst (4 3 3) on na = g instead of a bayāt (3 3 4) on ḥu = a; while a few maqām(s) have such a configuration in the ascending lower octave, maqām Ṭāhir (aforementioned Erlanger, no. 72 p. 270) seems to be another maqām based on the tonic dū which has an identical ascending scale (in the lower octave) composed of tetrachords bayāt on dū and rāst on na=g, with an insistence on the central na. The descending scale contains however a būsalīk tetrachord, which makes it a poor candidate for this performance.
More important however is the inner structuring of the scale in Daoud’s performance, made up of (effectively) a lower bayāt tetrachord 3 3 4 on dū = DŪKĀ = d and of a joint rāst tetrachord 4 4 3 on na = NAWĀ = g, but with an intermediate, and sometimes intricated trichord jahārkā 4 4 on ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f. This seems to indicate that this maqām, that we shall call “Syriac Bayāt” (Bayātī-Siryānī), is specific to this particular tradition, or at least not of common use as I could not find an equivalent in the literature nor could specialists of Arabian music which I consulted do so.
This 44th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series features a graphic representation of the intensity of the sound in parallel to pitch representation
Video-analysis of an improvisation in maqāmṢabā by Hamdi Makhlouf on ʿūd, recorded by Amine Beyhom on the 16th of March 2005 in Paris – France.
editing: Amine Beyhom
A CERMAA Production
Notes for the graphic representation
The pitch contour is shown as a black broken line, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. Score scales are based on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals). The graphic scales are based on the same intervallic division and feature to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, dū = DŪKĀ = d, sī = SĪKĀ = e–, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = b– and Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables. The upper stripe features a division of the vertical space based on the tonic and its octave (red horizontal lines, plain for the tonic), the fourth (green dashed line) and the fifth (blue dashed line).
Notes for the literal analysis
s_a = “Analysis time”; s_v = “Video time”. The original tonic is dū = DŪKĀ, which corresponds to an unstopped string of the ʿūd. This means that the tonic is stable and that the graphic scale remains still (no vertical displacement). Note names are italicized.
In both literal analysis and annotations to the graphical analysis numbers between brackets are additional bordering intervals used (or not used) in performance; for example, a ḥijāz tetrachordon DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 262 if the performer uses one-interval extensions for the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262. The rest note of the tetrachord is always dū but the performer may use a lower interval of one half-tone (“2”) between c#and d, and a higher one-tone interval between na = NAWĀ = g and ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a. The same ḥijāz tetrachordon DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 26 if the performer does not use the upper semi-tone the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262 (the ) in the described performance. Furthermore, the upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or jins) rāst (lowercase).
1st Part [0-57 s_a]: Development of the lower octave of maqām
Ṣabā with ajnās ṣabā 332 on dū and ḥijāz on ja 262
The performer starts [1-7 s_a] with the characteristic formula of maqām Ṣabā on dū – between dū = DŪKĀ = d and ḥij = ḥijāz = gb – and stabilizes on the ja (= JAHĀRKĀ = f), with subsequent variations [9-25 s_a] including a lower part of a ḥijāz tetrachord on ja (ja 26 in multiples of the quarter-tone –  = missing – hinted – part of the ḥijāz tetrachord in the performance). In the second section of this first part [28-57 s_a] of the taqsīm (instrumental improvisation) jins ḥijāz on ja 262 is fully developed with an extension to the upper rā at 36.5 s_a and to the lower sī at 41 s_a, which marks the return [41-52 s_a] to jins ṣabā on dū extended to the lower Rā (= RĀST) at 47 s_a with an extension [around 53 s_a] to the upper limit (c#) of the non-octavial scale featuring an intricated jins ḥijāz 262 on ḥu = a.
A silence [57-63 s_a] marks the transition to the 2nd part.
2nd Part [63-113 s_a]: Development of the full lower scale of maqām Ṣabā-Nahawand with ajnās ṣabā 332 on dū, and ḥijāz on ja 262 and nahawand42 on ʿaj
Then begins a second part [62-71 s_a] in which the performer uses the note ʿaj = ʿAJAM = bbas a secondary tonic for jins nahawand 42 (with ḥu = a as a leading note) with a hint of lower jins ḥijāz [around 69 s_a] then a repeated hint [71-75 s_a] of upper jins nahawand42 on ʿaj – it may be that the performer intended to develop either this nahawand or possibly a jins ʿajam bb 442 but this was not the case. Instead, a regular descent of the canonic scale of maqām Ṣabā is used [75-100 s_a] with ḥijāz 262 on ja and ṣabā 332 on dū, with portamento and string lifting techniques notably around 95 s_a for the string stopped on the note sī = e–, followed [101-113 s_a] by a rapid ascent of the Ṣabā-ḥijāz scale dū 33,2,62,4(2,6), then by a step by step descent of the scale i.e. nahawand on ʿaj, ḥijāz on ja and ṣabā on dū. This last step consolidates maqām Ṣabā and prepares the upcoming modulation.
A short silence [113-116.5 s_a] marks the transition to the 3rd
short:1st and 2nd parts performed on the scale of
3rd Part [116.5-192 s_a]: Development of maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrānon ʿaj = ʿAJAM with a modulation to jins ṣabā-zamzama 242 on ḥu then closing with descending Ṣabā-Nahawand
In the third part of this taqsīm, Makhlouf modulates [116-123 s_a] to maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān 4424442 on (lower) ʿaj[am]bb(the maqām changes, the tonic changes too) beginning with the upper section ʿAj 44 then descending until the lower ʿaj. He then develops [124-134 s_a] jins ʿajam44 on the (upper) ʿAj followed by a jins ʿajam 442 on ja then by a modulation [134-149 s_a] in jins kurd on dū beginning with its upper section. Continuing developing [151-163 s_a] upper jins ʿajam 442 on ʿaj (with a modulation to jins nahawand 424 on upper rā), Makhlouf proceeds then to a modulation [163-167 s_a] to ṣabā-zamzama 242 on ḥu followed by the return [168-177 s_a] to jins ḥijāz 262 on ja then [177-192 s_a] to a closing jins ṣabā on dū.
Note (figure below) the typically small semi-tone in maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān between ḥu andʿaj [120-135 s_a].
Research centres and groups CERMAA, ICONEA and IReMus are delighted to inform you that the main theme for number eight of NEMO-Online will be: Music as science or music as art? This question has brought up controversy for centuries. It seems useful to apprehend what is the current position of music and musicology about this conundrum.
Other themes are also proposed:
The concepts and terminology of musicology and their evolution
Variations on the linguistics of musicology. Have homophonic terms in various languages and different cultures the same meaning ?
Collation of a multilingual lexicon taking these linguistic variations into account.
Differing perceptions in different times and spaces for terms such as ‘heterophony’, ‘polyphony’, ‘monody’, or ‘diatonic’, ‘chromatic’, ‘enharmonic’, etc.?
Difference between ‘law’ and ‘rule’
Musicology in the Arabian World aside countries having an established musicological structure such as the Lebanon and Tunisia.
Music and musicology in the Maghrib, countries of the Persian Gulf, Syria.
Byzantine and related chanting, such as syriac, coptic, etc.
Common practice of maqām
The Mediterranean and the Balkans
Turkic and Persian worlds
Indian, Chinese and others
Beyond the Western Mediterranean
Articles for this issue will be published according to their evaluation and layout for the internet. NEMO-Online No. 8 will collate articles published and in the course of editing and will be printed in November 2020 as part of the fifth volume (NEMO-Online Nos. 8 & 9).
Additionally, the Editorial Board will consider special extraneous contributions as long as they fit within the general aim of the publication.
Previous volumes are available here. (Please note that Volume 4, Nos 6&7 is now available in print.) Individual papers are available from the Articles tab on the NEMO-Online site.
Les centres et groupes de recherches CERMAA, ICONEA et IReMus ont le plaisir d’annoncer le thème principal du no 8 de NEMO-Online : Musique en tant que science ou musique en tant qu’art ? Cette question soulève la controverse depuis des millénaires, et il semblerait utile de faire un état des lieux de la pensée musicologique et musicale à ce sujet.
D’autres thèmes sont proposés, sur le long terme, à partir de ce numéro et continueront de complémenter le thème principal :
Les concepts et la terminologie de la musicologie et leur évolution historique :
Variations linguistiques de la terminologie (les « mêmes » termes veulent-ils dire la même chose dans différentes langues ou différentes cultures ?)
Établissement d’un lexique multilingue et/ou d’un dictionnaire critique de la musicologie prenant en compte ces variations
Perceptions différentes dans le temps et l’espace de termes comme « hétérophonie », « polyphonie », « monodie », ou encore « diatonique », « chromatique », « enharmonique », etc. ?
La différence entre « loi » et « règle » dans différentes langues et à différentes époques
Musicologie du Monde Arabe hors pays ayant des structures établies en musicologie (tels le Liban et la Tunisie) :
Musique et musicologie du Maghreb, des pays du Golfe arabo-persique, de la Syrie
Chant byzantin et dérivés, chant syriaque, chant copte, etc.
Tronc commun du maqām:
Méditerranée et Balkans
Mondes turcique et persan
Affinités indiennes, chinoises ou autres
Au-delà de la Méditerranée européenne
Les articles de ce numéro seront publiés au fur et à mesure de leur réception-évaluation-préparation pour la publication internet. NEMO-Online No 8 rassemblera les articles parus et en cours de parution et sera publié en novembre 2020, comme partie du Volume 5 (NEMO-Online Nos 8 & 9).
Date limite d’envoi des articles : fin juillet 2019.
La rédaction acceptera également d’examiner des dossiers spéciaux ou des articles hors-thème, du moment qu’ils concernent la thématique générale de la revue.
Les volumes précédents sont disponibles ici, les articles individuels dans l’onglet Articles sur le site de NEMO-Online. Veuillez noter que le Volume 4, Nos 6&7 est désormais disponible en version imprimée.
NEMO-Online Vol. 4 Nos. 6&7 is now available for downloading (download link below) / NEMO-Online Vol. 4 nos 6&7 est disponible pour téléchargement (lien ci-dessous).
All pdf articles in this volume are available individually at http://nemo-online.org/articles and bookmarked for titles, subtitles and figures / tous les articles au format pdf de ce volume sont téléchargeables individuellement à http://nemo-online.org/articles et contiennent des marque-pages correspondant aux titres, sous-titres et figures.
Note that minor changes in the layout may occur between individual articles and the binded volume, due to the harmonising of the layouts between No. 6 and No. 7 / Les changements mineurs de la mise en page entre articles individuels et volume collaté sont dûs à l’harmonisation entre les deux numéros 6 & 7 suite aux améliorations apportées à partir du n°7.
Hard and soft copy printed versions to follow shortly / Les versions imprimées seront disponibles prochainement.
NEMO-Online Vol. 4 contents / contenu / ملخّص :
Editor’s letter / Éditorial / كلمة الناشرين :Evolution, problems and alternate propositions for musicology and ethnomusicology / Évolution, problèmes et proposition alternatives pour musicologie et de l’ethnomusicologie / التطوّر، المشاكل والحلول البديلة لعلم الموسيقى (موسيقولوجيا) وعلم الموسيقى
NEMO-Online No. 6 :
Amine Beyhom : “A Hypothesis for the Elaboration of Heptatonic Scales,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 6 |2017-05| p. 5–88.
Richard Dumbrill : “The Truth about Babylonian Music,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 6 |2017-08| p. 91–121.
Bruno Deschênes : “A preliminary approach to the analysis of honkyoku, the solo repertoire of the Japanese shakuhachi,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 6 |2017-08| p. 123–143.
NEMO-Online No. 7 :
Amine Beyhom : “MAT for the VIAMAP – Maqām Analysis Tools for the Video-Animated Music Analysis Project,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 7 |2018-11| p. 145–256.
NEMO-Online is delighted to propose this new article by Amine Beyhom on notational tools and graphical analyses of melody and rythm.
Musical notation has been reputed as disqualified for the analysis of “Foreign” musics since – at least – the experiments of Charles Seeger with the Melograph. It is nevertheless still used as the main analytic – and teaching – tool for these musics in most researches in musicology, and today in the teaching of these musics in autochthonous conservatories. Seeger’s experiments brought at his time cutting-edge solutions – and alternatives – to score notation but, surprisingly enough, these solutions seem to have not worked out very well in the long run.
Beyhom proposes a voluminous dossier including three parts and relying on the pioneering works of Seeger – and other ethnomusicologists – as well as on the improvements of his method that we have witnessed in the last decades. The first part expounds the past, and on-going debates about the (mis-) use of score notation as applied to “Foreign” musics, while the second part offers a retrospective of Maqām music notation. The third part of the dossier describes different tools of pitch and spectrum analysis which help understand – and listen better to the analyzed music while exposing, in fine, the author’s work and propositions for the implementation of video-animated analyses in the teaching of ethnomusicology as one major basis for this teaching. The dossier is accompanied by a short power point show (PPS) and 41 video-animated analyses (total time = 2 h 13 m).
Nous avons le plaisir à NEMO-Online de publier ce nouvel article par Amine Beyhom sur les outils de notation et d’analyse graphique de la mélodie et du rythme.
La notation musicale est réputée être disqualifiée pour les analyses de musique “étrangères” et ce depuis, au moins, les expériences de Charles Seeger avec le mélographe. Il n’en reste pas moins que la notation classique reste l’outil principal d’analyse de ces musiques dans les recherches musicologiques, et de leur enseignement dans les conservatoires locaux. Les méthodes de Seeger étaient à l’avant-garde de la recherche pour une analyse – et une notation – alternative des musiques traditionnelles mais, de manière assez surprenante, ne semblent pas avoir pris racine dans l’enseignement de l’ethnomusicologie.
Beyhom propose un dossier volumineux en trois parties, basé sur l’oeuvre pionnière de Seeger – et d’autres ethnomusicologues – ainsi que sur les améliorations de cette méthode apportées au fil des recherches par ses successeurs. La première partie retrace les débats soulevés par l’utilisation (ou non) de la notation musicale classique pour les musique non occidentales – notamment non semi-tonales – tandis que la deuxième partie est consacrée à une courte rétrospective historique de la notation de la musique du maqām. La troisième partie décrit divers outils d’analyse des hauteurs et du spectre d’une mélodie qui sont une aide à l’analyse – et à la compréhension, sinon à une meilleure écoute – de ces musiques. En conclusion l’auteur appelle à implémenter l’enseignement des analyses vidéo-animées de hauteurs dans l’enseignement courant de l’ethnomusicologie, comme outil principal d’analyse des musiques “autres”.
Le dossier est accompagné d’un fichier Power Point contenant quelques exemples d’analyse avec curseur se déplaçant horizontalement sur l’écran, et de 41 analyses vidéo dont le temps total s’élève à 2 heures et 13 minutes.