THE CHORUS REFORMATION IN MODERN PERFORMANCES OF ANCIENT GREEK TRAGEDY AFTER 1945: The Suppliants (1964) of Iannis Xenakis and The Persians (1965) of Jani Christou … p.1
ANALYTICAL AND INTERPRETATIVE APPROACH: Yorgo Sisilianos’s Works for Two Pianos … p.19
MY 20 YEARS LIFE TRIP: Between Katy Romanou and Rena Kyriakou … p.43
A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW AND COMPARATIVE STUDY: Musical-Poetical Structural Analysis of Greek Folk-Songs … p.67
KATY ROMANOU S’EXPRIME: L’oeuvre pour Piano de Nikos Skalkottas à Travers une Co-Direction de Thèse de Doctorat … p.87
MANOLIS KALOMIRIS: His Relationship with Dr. Erwin Felber and Βéla Bélai in the Forties and the Fifties … p.95
GREEKNESS IN NIKOS SKALKOTTAS’ CHAMBER MUSIC: An Analytical View of Issues of Modal and Idiomatic Structural Issues … p.101
A SCOT BARD IN EUROPEAN SOUTH: Dionisios Rodotheato’s Opera Oitona (1876) … p.139
ART MUSICS OF THE ORIENT: Or the Time for Recognition … p.147
Katy Romanou (Kaitē Rōmanou) was born in 1939, Athens and died in May 2020.
She studied at Indiana University where she was granted a Masters degree in musicology and pursued her studies at the University of Athens where she was awarded a Ph.D. in musicology. She was a music critic for the daily newspaper He Kathemerine (1974-1986), and was on the editorial boards of Greek periodicals Musicologia and Polyphonia. She was also a founding member of the Hellenic Musicological Society where she remained active until her death. Katy published extensively in Greek and English and contributed to many publications. She gave lectures on Greek music in the United States of America, at the City University of New York, Yale University, University of Florida at Gainesville and at the University of Missouri, St. Louis. She taught music history and music theory at several conservatories in Greece before holding a professorship chair at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UoA – Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), and later at the European University of Cyprus (Ευρωπαϊκό Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου).
She was always trying to link people together through music and research, especially in her main fields of interest which were Greek music and the Byzantine world. Katy believed in the essential role of the Balkan countries in the shaping of the history of musicology and strongly fought to bind the Balkans to Western music history.
When we met her in Cyprus during a colloquium, we were pleased to discuss with her during the coffee breaks about several musicological issues and we understood at CERMAA how sharp her mind was and how much work she still wanted to achieve. It was with great sadness that we read about her death. Her loss was untimely for all but especially to the world of musicology.
Katy Romanou (Kaitē Rōmanou) est née en 1939 à Athènes, et décédée en Mai 2020.
Elle a obtenu son Master en Musicologie à l’Université de l’Indiana puis son doctorat à l’Université d’Athènes. Elle fut critique musicale pour le quotidien He Kathemerine (1974-1986) et membre des comités d’édition des revues grecques Musicologia et Polyphonia. Elle fut aussi membre fondateur de la Hellenic Musicological Society au sein de laquelle elle poursuivit ses activités jusqu’à son décès.
Katy publia extensivement en Grec et en Anglais, et donna des conférences et des cours sur la musique grecque aux États-Unis, notamment à la City University of New York, à la Yale University, à l’Université de Floride (Gainesville) et à l’Université du Missouri (St. Louis). Elle enseigna l’histoire et la théorie de la musique dans plusieurs conservatoires en Grèce avant d’obtenir une chaire de professeur à l’Université Nationale et Capodistrienne d’Athènes (Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), et plus tard à l’Université Européenne de Chypre (Ευρωπαϊκό Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου).
Katy favorisa toujours les rencontres intellectuelles entre musiciens et entre chercheurs, tout particulièrement dans les deux domaines qui lui tenaient à cœur, la musique grecque et le monde byzantin. Elle croyait au rôle essentiel des pays balkaniques dans le façonnement de l’histoire de la musicologie, et se battit résolument pour relier les Balkans à l’histoire de la musique occidentale.
Nous l’avions rencontrée à Chypre, à l’occasion d’un colloque, et avions eu le plaisir de discuter avec elle de divers sujets musicologiques pendant les pauses-café. C’est là que nous avions compris à quel point sa réflexion sur la musicologie était acérée, ainsi que l’étendue du travail qu’elle s’attendait encore à accomplir. C’est avec une grande tristesse que nous avons appris la nouvelle de sa mort, une vraie perte pour tous ceux qui la connaissaient, et plus particulièrement pour la musicologie.
The Tebb-e Dārā Shokuhi is a medical treatise written by a Persian scholar of the Mughal court. It includes a chapter on the art of music considered in particular for its therapeutic properties. The article highlights principal points of this text and identifies its many borrowings from earlier music treaties. The author, who was born in India, had the opportunity to compile these sources, which attest of the wide diffusion in Northern India of the Persian musical culture and of the Greater Khorasan.
The author proposes a stylistic study of the song “Anta ʿUmrī” composed par Muḥammad ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb and sung by Umm Kulthūm. Through techniques used by the composer along with Kulthūm’s interpretation, she demonstrates the coexistence within the song of traditional and modern elements. Additionally, she proposes the complete score of a performance of this song which is accessible on the web.
Nemo-Online a le plaisir d’annoncer la publication du n°10 de la revue, avec trois articles par Amine Beyhom (en Anglais), Jean During (en Anglais) et Hanene Gharbi (حنان الغربي – en Arabe).
Le Tebb-e Dārā Shokuhi est un traité de médecine d’un Persan de la cour moghole. Il comporte un chapitre sur l’art musical envisagé notamment pour ses propriétés thérapeutiques. L’article fait ressortir les points originaux de ce texte et relève ses nombreux emprunts à des traités de musique antérieurs. L’auteur, qui était né en Inde, avait eu la possibilité de compiler ces sources, ce qui témoigne de la large diffusion en Inde du Nord de la culture musicale de Perse et du Grand Khorasan.
L’auteure propose une étude de style sur la chanson “Anta ʿUmrī” composée par Muḥammad ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb et chantée par Umm Kulthūm. Elle démontre, à travers les techniques employées par le compositeur – alliées à l’interprétation de la chanteuse –, une coexistence au sein de la chanson entre phrasés traditionnels et modernes. Elle propose également la partition complète d’une interprétation de cette chanson accessible sur internet.
Four Lebanese cantors of Byzantine chant – Fr. Nicolas Malek, Fr. Makarios Haidamous, Joseph Yazbeck and a cantor who preferred to remain anonymous – accepted to record (among other performances) the scales of the eight canonical modes of their liturgical chant for research purposes. Each of them is a renowned soloist and choir director in Lebanon.
The complete results of the analyses of these recordings are proposed in the aforementioned book, while particular results concerning the first mode were presented on various occasions in Greece and in Cyprus, but also in France, Tunisia and in Lebanon.
The analyses in the videos are based on these presentations, which in turn were based on power point animations proposed in the aforementioned book.
Each video comprises a short theoretical introduction contextualizing the scales of the current mode within the general frame of the 19th-Century Second Reform of Byzantine chant.
Moreover, the first video (for the First mode) features a General Introduction which explains shortly:
The solmization of the Byzantine – and equivalences between Byzantine and Western – degrees of the scale
The accidentals used in the theory of the Second Reform (and in the Western/Byzantine notation proposed by the author)
The scores and literal notations
(And) Explanations about the graphic representation of the results
This 45th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series features an introduction explaining the basics of video-analyses for maqām music. Note that this analysis is included under “maqām“and not under “Byzantine” analyses, due to the particular scale of the chant.
Video-analysis of the takhshefto (“supplication”): “Like the Merchants” Akh tagorye hʾachirye 4:50+ trimmed (caudal silence) to 4:48, performed by Evelyne Daoud (Evlīn Dāwūd), recorded in the town of Qamishli (North-east Syria)
Analysis and editing: Amine Beyhom
Special thanks to Hamdi Makhlouf and Saad Saab for their insight for the maqām analysis, and to Aboud Zino who kindly provided additional historical and descriptive material concerning this chant and the performer
A CERMAA production
Notes for the graphic representation
The pitch contour is shown as a black broken line, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. Score scales are based on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals). The graphic scales are based on the same intervallic division and feature to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, dū = DŪKĀ = d, sī = SĪKĀ = e–, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = b– and Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables. The upper stripe features a division of the vertical space based on the tonic and its octave (red horizontal lines, plain for the tonic), the fourth (green dashed line) and the fifth (blue dashed line). Note also that s_a = “Analysis time”; s_v = “Video time”. The original tonic is dū = DŪKĀ, which corresponds to an unstopped string of the ʿūd.
The upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or jins) rāst (lowercase).In both literal analysis and annotations to the graphical analysis numbers between brackets are additional bordering intervals used (or not used) in performance; for example, a rāst tetrachordon NAWĀ = na will be noted na 433 if the performer uses one-interval extensions for the original tetrachord rāst 433 on RĀST. The rest note of the tetrachord is always na but the performer may use a lower interval of one tone (“4”) between f and g, and a higher one-tone interval between Rā = upper RĀST = KIRDĀN = c’ or (C) and Dū = upper DŪKĀ = d’ (or D). In a similar way, a ḥijāz tetrachordon DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 26 if the performer does not use the upper semi-tone of the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262 (the ) in the described performance.
Preliminary research and analysis
From the CD Syrian Orthodox Church – Antioch Liturgy (1983/1992) D 8039 Auvidis-Unesco (rights of the recording acquired to date by Smithsonian Folkways Recordings).
Track and liner notes courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings
Excerpt from the liner notes: [p. 5]
This is another takhshefto (supplication) based on the sixth mode according to the tradition of Tur ʿAbdin [Ṭūr ʿAbdīn, طور عَبْدِين] (the equivalent of the maqām ʿajam) which, due to its melismatic character, does not function at all like a qinto [melodic style], but is rather in the spirit of the maqām.
Like the merchants, the martyrs entered into battle. They shed their blood in order to obtain spiritual wealth, in the manner of skilled merchants. They bartered their lives for death, preferring torment to rest. They chose death rather than a short life. They are in the kingdom, guests of the son of the King and we are invited to participate in the feast, proclaiming: Glory to thee, Ruler of the Universe
Note on the title (incipit): the word hʾachirye is pronounced “kashīrīh” by the singer as can be read in the “Karshuni” (translitteration of Syriac in Arabic) version “Akh tagorye hʾachirye” (below) listed as No. 419 in the book The Bread of Life published in 2002.
More about the chant (freely translated from a private communication by Aboud Zino – See also at the end of the post the Arabic translation and the original Syriac version) …
The takhshfotho (pl. of takhshefto) are a melismatic, non-measured type of chants which span a complete octave. This particular type of takhshfotho is attributed to Bishop Rābūlā a-r-Rahāwī (“Bishop Rabola of Raha”) who died 425 CE. These were gathered and classified by one of the fathers of the Syriac Church, Jacob the Rahawite (Yaʿqūb a-r-Rahāwī) who died in 708 CE.
… and about Evelyne Daoud (same source as above)
Malfonito Evelyne Daoud (1935-2002) was a respected Lebanese cantor of the Syriac Orthodox Church who lived in Qamishli in Syria. She was very active in Church life, including teaching and scout movement.
Video Analysis (updated 22/01/2019)
On the general ascending scale of what the analyst called maqām Syriac Bayāt (equivalent to the scale of maqām Ḥusaynī dū 3344334) the singer begins with a jump of third from dū to ja slightly lower than the theoretical pitches corresponding to the first (more or less) stabilized tonic measured around 7 s_a rising then to na to complete the jins bayāt 334 on dū and concludes this introductive section of the first part on the tonic [end at 11.5 s_a]. Follow then [14-38 s_a] in a very linear manner a jahārka trichord ja 44 with a brush of the aw, a rāst 433 on na with occasional brushes of the ja and a stop on ja for what may be understood as a transitory (and intricated) jahārka 44 in trichord (skimmed from the usual caudal semi-tone when tetrachordal) then by a conclusive bayāt 334 on dū. This first part is similarly concluded [40-53 s_a] by a jahārka trichord on ja intricated with however a bayāt trichord 33 on dū.
The second part [55-103 s_a] has a similar structure (as with the first part). The third part [105.5-142 s_a] is initiated with a (near) jump of fourth on the (upper) rā and features a jins rāst 433 on na with a rest on this secondary tonic, the whole repeated once, followed after a silence directly by [144.5-193 s_a] a jins bayāt which announces the remake (here by the same performer) of Part 1, 3, and 1 [Parts 4, 5 and 6]. (Note a clear tendency to raise the final na for jin rāst on na.)
About the recording
The recording was made ca 1980 (or before – estimated). The original LP was released in 1983, and the CD version in 1992, but the liner notes (by Christian Poché, [p. 3]) say that the first track was recorded in Damascus: the former “Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, who died suddenly on 25 June 1980, celebrates in this track the prayers of consecration”. However, the web page featuring the extract of this song on the Smithsonian Folkway Records website says that the original album was released in 1971 under the title Ritual Chant and Music with the catalog number UNES08103_114, as Track 14 (the caudal number 114 seems to indicate the CD number “1” and track number “14”) with duration 3:58… However, the web page of the album and the release tab list August 10, 1996 as the first release.
Track 14 in D 8103
was clearly picked up from D 8039 (Track 7), as the CD rank numbers indicate
(8039 comes before 8103). The back cover (last line) of D 8103 (above) also
states that recording copyrights (℗) for this compilation range from 1971 to
1996, which would explain the confusion on the track page.
 The sixth mode in the Greek-Orthodox tradition is a plagal mode the scale of which is equivalent to the scale of maqām Ḥijāz-Kār (d 2 6 2 4 2 6 2 in an ascending scale expressed in approximate multiples of the quarter-tone).
 The scale corresponds theoretically to (ascending) 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 on bb for maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān in multiples of the quarter-tone, and to (ascending) 3 3 4 4 4 2 4 on d for maqām ʿAjam as such (without the caudal ʿUshayrān which points to bb as a tonic).
 “Sanctus” from the tradition of Mardin, Tagrit, Urfa.
About the Tur ʿAbdin tradition and the Syriac oktoechos (liner notes p. 3)
The tradition of Tur ʿAbdin, tenaciously upheld in the Syrian border town of El qamishli (Syria), is a reflection of the remarkable golden age of Syriac, from which it has assimilated the various tendencies.
The Syrian Church, as is the case for all the eastern Christian communities, groups its melodic styles (qinti) within an overall unit (oktoechos, or set of eight modes), also known as ikhadia, and indicates the mode to be used for each Sunday of the year, rising every week by one scale degree.
The Syriac word ikhadia was formed from the Greek ikhos, meaning “sound” and athos, meaning “chant”. It refers to simple melodic formulae which, by virtue of the historical developments, have begun to relate to the Arabic notion of maqām, without adopting all its aspects, however.
The bet-gazo, or treasure of melodies, also known as shimo, or ferial breviary, is a compilation of non-biblical texts used as reminders for the deacons.
In practice, it is impossible to generalize the use of the eight modes throughout the community. Experience shows that the oktoechos varies in terms of the nomenclature of its scales according to province. It is as though a practice, patterned after the musical dialects stemming from local customs and usage, corresponded […] to a universal theory of oktoechos.
At first sight (listening) the scale is composed of two sometimes slightly shrunk bayāt tetrachords with central disjunction – sometimes wide – and a steadily changing tonic. This is equivalent to the scale of maqām Ḥusaynī as explained for example under maqām Bayātī (no. 59 p. 118-119) in
Ḥilū (al-), Salīm سليم الحلو. الموسيقى النظرية Al-Mūsīqā a-n-Naẓariyya [La Musique Théorique]. 2nd ed. بيروت – لبنان Beyrouth – Liban: منشورات دار مكتبة الحياة Dār Maktabat al-Ḥayāt, 1972, p. 119
but also in
Erlanger, Rodolphe (d’). La Musique Arabe (5) – Essai de Codification Des Règles Usuelles de La Musique Arabe Moderne. Échelle Générale Des Sons, Système Modal. Vol. 5. 6 vols. Paris, France: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1949, scale under no. 57, p. 240
MaqāmʿAjam is frequently equated today with maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān with the scale bb4 4 2 4 4 4 2; maqām ʿAjam per se (without the caudalʿUshayrān) may have an equivalent scale to maqām Bayāt (3 3 4 4 2 4 4 – see Erlanger no. 62 p. 250) but would be notably distinguished by the necessary use of aʿajam tetrachord (4 4 2) or trichord (4 4) on bb and of a jahārkā tetrachord (4 4 2) on f. However, the use of NAWĀ = na = g as a secondary (if not first) tonic and the rare use of the upper DŪKĀ (MUḤAYYAR) = Dū = d’ argue in favor of a tetrachord rāst (4 3 3) on na = g instead of a bayāt (3 3 4) on ḥu = a; while a few maqām(s) have such a configuration in the ascending lower octave, maqām Ṭāhir (aforementioned Erlanger, no. 72 p. 270) seems to be another maqām based on the tonic dū which has an identical ascending scale (in the lower octave) composed of tetrachords bayāt on dū and rāst on na=g, with an insistence on the central na. The descending scale contains however a būsalīk tetrachord, which makes it a poor candidate for this performance.
More important however is the inner structuring of the scale in Daoud’s performance, made up of (effectively) a lower bayāt tetrachord 3 3 4 on dū = DŪKĀ = d and of a joint rāst tetrachord 4 4 3 on na = NAWĀ = g, but with an intermediate, and sometimes intricated trichord jahārkā 4 4 on ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f. This seems to indicate that this maqām, that we shall call “Syriac Bayāt” (Bayātī-Siryānī), is specific to this particular tradition, or at least not of common use as I could not find an equivalent in the literature nor could specialists of Arabian music which I consulted do so.
This 44th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series features a graphic representation of the intensity of the sound in parallel to pitch representation
Video-analysis of an improvisation in maqāmṢabā by Hamdi Makhlouf on ʿūd, recorded by Amine Beyhom on the 16th of March 2005 in Paris – France.
editing: Amine Beyhom
A CERMAA Production
Notes for the graphic representation
The pitch contour is shown as a black broken line, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. Score scales are based on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals). The graphic scales are based on the same intervallic division and feature to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, dū = DŪKĀ = d, sī = SĪKĀ = e–, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = b– and Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables. The upper stripe features a division of the vertical space based on the tonic and its octave (red horizontal lines, plain for the tonic), the fourth (green dashed line) and the fifth (blue dashed line).
Notes for the literal analysis
s_a = “Analysis time”; s_v = “Video time”. The original tonic is dū = DŪKĀ, which corresponds to an unstopped string of the ʿūd. This means that the tonic is stable and that the graphic scale remains still (no vertical displacement). Note names are italicized.
In both literal analysis and annotations to the graphical analysis numbers between brackets are additional bordering intervals used (or not used) in performance; for example, a ḥijāz tetrachordon DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 262 if the performer uses one-interval extensions for the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262. The rest note of the tetrachord is always dū but the performer may use a lower interval of one half-tone (“2”) between c#and d, and a higher one-tone interval between na = NAWĀ = g and ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a. The same ḥijāz tetrachordon DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 26 if the performer does not use the upper semi-tone the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262 (the ) in the described performance. Furthermore, the upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or jins) rāst (lowercase).
1st Part [0-57 s_a]: Development of the lower octave of maqām
Ṣabā with ajnās ṣabā 332 on dū and ḥijāz on ja 262
The performer starts [1-7 s_a] with the characteristic formula of maqām Ṣabā on dū – between dū = DŪKĀ = d and ḥij = ḥijāz = gb – and stabilizes on the ja (= JAHĀRKĀ = f), with subsequent variations [9-25 s_a] including a lower part of a ḥijāz tetrachord on ja (ja 26 in multiples of the quarter-tone –  = missing – hinted – part of the ḥijāz tetrachord in the performance). In the second section of this first part [28-57 s_a] of the taqsīm (instrumental improvisation) jins ḥijāz on ja 262 is fully developed with an extension to the upper rā at 36.5 s_a and to the lower sī at 41 s_a, which marks the return [41-52 s_a] to jins ṣabā on dū extended to the lower Rā (= RĀST) at 47 s_a with an extension [around 53 s_a] to the upper limit (c#) of the non-octavial scale featuring an intricated jins ḥijāz 262 on ḥu = a.
A silence [57-63 s_a] marks the transition to the 2nd part.
2nd Part [63-113 s_a]: Development of the full lower scale of maqām Ṣabā-Nahawand with ajnās ṣabā 332 on dū, and ḥijāz on ja 262 and nahawand42 on ʿaj
Then begins a second part [62-71 s_a] in which the performer uses the note ʿaj = ʿAJAM = bbas a secondary tonic for jins nahawand 42 (with ḥu = a as a leading note) with a hint of lower jins ḥijāz [around 69 s_a] then a repeated hint [71-75 s_a] of upper jins nahawand42 on ʿaj – it may be that the performer intended to develop either this nahawand or possibly a jins ʿajam bb 442 but this was not the case. Instead, a regular descent of the canonic scale of maqām Ṣabā is used [75-100 s_a] with ḥijāz 262 on ja and ṣabā 332 on dū, with portamento and string lifting techniques notably around 95 s_a for the string stopped on the note sī = e–, followed [101-113 s_a] by a rapid ascent of the Ṣabā-ḥijāz scale dū 33,2,62,4(2,6), then by a step by step descent of the scale i.e. nahawand on ʿaj, ḥijāz on ja and ṣabā on dū. This last step consolidates maqām Ṣabā and prepares the upcoming modulation.
A short silence [113-116.5 s_a] marks the transition to the 3rd
short:1st and 2nd parts performed on the scale of
3rd Part [116.5-192 s_a]: Development of maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrānon ʿaj = ʿAJAM with a modulation to jins ṣabā-zamzama 242 on ḥu then closing with descending Ṣabā-Nahawand
In the third part of this taqsīm, Makhlouf modulates [116-123 s_a] to maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān 4424442 on (lower) ʿaj[am]bb(the maqām changes, the tonic changes too) beginning with the upper section ʿAj 44 then descending until the lower ʿaj. He then develops [124-134 s_a] jins ʿajam44 on the (upper) ʿAj followed by a jins ʿajam 442 on ja then by a modulation [134-149 s_a] in jins kurd on dū beginning with its upper section. Continuing developing [151-163 s_a] upper jins ʿajam 442 on ʿaj (with a modulation to jins nahawand 424 on upper rā), Makhlouf proceeds then to a modulation [163-167 s_a] to ṣabā-zamzama 242 on ḥu followed by the return [168-177 s_a] to jins ḥijāz 262 on ja then [177-192 s_a] to a closing jins ṣabā on dū.
Note (figure below) the typically small semi-tone in maqām ʿAjam-ʿUshayrān between ḥu andʿaj [120-135 s_a].
Research centres and groups CERMAA, ICONEA and IReMus are delighted to inform you that the main theme for number eight of NEMO-Online will be: Music as science or music as art? This question has brought up controversy for centuries. It seems useful to apprehend what is the current position of music and musicology about this conundrum.
Other themes are also proposed:
The concepts and terminology of musicology and their evolution
Variations on the linguistics of musicology. Have homophonic terms in various languages and different cultures the same meaning ?
Collation of a multilingual lexicon taking these linguistic variations into account.
Differing perceptions in different times and spaces for terms such as ‘heterophony’, ‘polyphony’, ‘monody’, or ‘diatonic’, ‘chromatic’, ‘enharmonic’, etc.?
Difference between ‘law’ and ‘rule’
Musicology in the Arabian World aside countries having an established musicological structure such as the Lebanon and Tunisia.
Music and musicology in the Maghrib, countries of the Persian Gulf, Syria.
Byzantine and related chanting, such as syriac, coptic, etc.
Common practice of maqām
The Mediterranean and the Balkans
Turkic and Persian worlds
Indian, Chinese and others
Beyond the Western Mediterranean
Articles for this issue will be published according to their evaluation and layout for the internet. NEMO-Online No. 8 will collate articles published and in the course of editing and will be printed in November 2020 as part of the fifth volume (NEMO-Online Nos. 8 & 9).
Additionally, the Editorial Board will consider special extraneous contributions as long as they fit within the general aim of the publication.
Previous volumes are available here. (Please note that Volume 4, Nos 6&7 is now available in print.) Individual papers are available from the Articles tab on the NEMO-Online site.
Les centres et groupes de recherches CERMAA, ICONEA et IReMus ont le plaisir d’annoncer le thème principal du no 8 de NEMO-Online : Musique en tant que science ou musique en tant qu’art ? Cette question soulève la controverse depuis des millénaires, et il semblerait utile de faire un état des lieux de la pensée musicologique et musicale à ce sujet.
D’autres thèmes sont proposés, sur le long terme, à partir de ce numéro et continueront de complémenter le thème principal :
Les concepts et la terminologie de la musicologie et leur évolution historique :
Variations linguistiques de la terminologie (les « mêmes » termes veulent-ils dire la même chose dans différentes langues ou différentes cultures ?)
Établissement d’un lexique multilingue et/ou d’un dictionnaire critique de la musicologie prenant en compte ces variations
Perceptions différentes dans le temps et l’espace de termes comme « hétérophonie », « polyphonie », « monodie », ou encore « diatonique », « chromatique », « enharmonique », etc. ?
La différence entre « loi » et « règle » dans différentes langues et à différentes époques
Musicologie du Monde Arabe hors pays ayant des structures établies en musicologie (tels le Liban et la Tunisie) :
Musique et musicologie du Maghreb, des pays du Golfe arabo-persique, de la Syrie
Chant byzantin et dérivés, chant syriaque, chant copte, etc.
Tronc commun du maqām:
Méditerranée et Balkans
Mondes turcique et persan
Affinités indiennes, chinoises ou autres
Au-delà de la Méditerranée européenne
Les articles de ce numéro seront publiés au fur et à mesure de leur réception-évaluation-préparation pour la publication internet. NEMO-Online No 8 rassemblera les articles parus et en cours de parution et sera publié en novembre 2020, comme partie du Volume 5 (NEMO-Online Nos 8 & 9).
Date limite d’envoi des articles : fin juillet 2019.
La rédaction acceptera également d’examiner des dossiers spéciaux ou des articles hors-thème, du moment qu’ils concernent la thématique générale de la revue.
Les volumes précédents sont disponibles ici, les articles individuels dans l’onglet Articles sur le site de NEMO-Online. Veuillez noter que le Volume 4, Nos 6&7 est désormais disponible en version imprimée.
NEMO-Online Vol. 4 Nos. 6&7 is now available for downloading (download link below) / NEMO-Online Vol. 4 nos 6&7 est disponible pour téléchargement (lien ci-dessous).
All pdf articles in this volume are available individually at http://nemo-online.org/articles and bookmarked for titles, subtitles and figures / tous les articles au format pdf de ce volume sont téléchargeables individuellement à http://nemo-online.org/articles et contiennent des marque-pages correspondant aux titres, sous-titres et figures.
Note that minor changes in the layout may occur between individual articles and the binded volume, due to the harmonising of the layouts between No. 6 and No. 7 / Les changements mineurs de la mise en page entre articles individuels et volume collaté sont dûs à l’harmonisation entre les deux numéros 6 & 7 suite aux améliorations apportées à partir du n°7.
Hard and soft copy printed versions to follow shortly / Les versions imprimées seront disponibles prochainement.
NEMO-Online Vol. 4 contents / contenu / ملخّص :
Editor’s letter / Éditorial / كلمة الناشرين :Evolution, problems and alternate propositions for musicology and ethnomusicology / Évolution, problèmes et proposition alternatives pour musicologie et de l’ethnomusicologie / التطوّر، المشاكل والحلول البديلة لعلم الموسيقى (موسيقولوجيا) وعلم الموسيقى
NEMO-Online No. 6 :
Amine Beyhom : “A Hypothesis for the Elaboration of Heptatonic Scales,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 6 |2017-05| p. 5–88.
Richard Dumbrill : “The Truth about Babylonian Music,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 6 |2017-08| p. 91–121.
Bruno Deschênes : “A preliminary approach to the analysis of honkyoku, the solo repertoire of the Japanese shakuhachi,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 6 |2017-08| p. 123–143.
NEMO-Online No. 7 :
Amine Beyhom : “MAT for the VIAMAP – Maqām Analysis Tools for the Video-Animated Music Analysis Project,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 7 |2018-11| p. 145–256.
NEMO-Online is delighted to propose this new article by Amine Beyhom on notational tools and graphical analyses of melody and rythm.
Musical notation has been reputed as disqualified for the analysis of “Foreign” musics since – at least – the experiments of Charles Seeger with the Melograph. It is nevertheless still used as the main analytic – and teaching – tool for these musics in most researches in musicology, and today in the teaching of these musics in autochthonous conservatories. Seeger’s experiments brought at his time cutting-edge solutions – and alternatives – to score notation but, surprisingly enough, these solutions seem to have not worked out very well in the long run.
Beyhom proposes a voluminous dossier including three parts and relying on the pioneering works of Seeger – and other ethnomusicologists – as well as on the improvements of his method that we have witnessed in the last decades. The first part expounds the past, and on-going debates about the (mis-) use of score notation as applied to “Foreign” musics, while the second part offers a retrospective of Maqām music notation. The third part of the dossier describes different tools of pitch and spectrum analysis which help understand – and listen better to the analyzed music while exposing, in fine, the author’s work and propositions for the implementation of video-animated analyses in the teaching of ethnomusicology as one major basis for this teaching. The dossier is accompanied by a short power point show (PPS) and 41 video-animated analyses (total time = 2 h 13 m).
Nous avons le plaisir à NEMO-Online de publier ce nouvel article par Amine Beyhom sur les outils de notation et d’analyse graphique de la mélodie et du rythme.
La notation musicale est réputée être disqualifiée pour les analyses de musique “étrangères” et ce depuis, au moins, les expériences de Charles Seeger avec le mélographe. Il n’en reste pas moins que la notation classique reste l’outil principal d’analyse de ces musiques dans les recherches musicologiques, et de leur enseignement dans les conservatoires locaux. Les méthodes de Seeger étaient à l’avant-garde de la recherche pour une analyse – et une notation – alternative des musiques traditionnelles mais, de manière assez surprenante, ne semblent pas avoir pris racine dans l’enseignement de l’ethnomusicologie.
Beyhom propose un dossier volumineux en trois parties, basé sur l’oeuvre pionnière de Seeger – et d’autres ethnomusicologues – ainsi que sur les améliorations de cette méthode apportées au fil des recherches par ses successeurs. La première partie retrace les débats soulevés par l’utilisation (ou non) de la notation musicale classique pour les musique non occidentales – notamment non semi-tonales – tandis que la deuxième partie est consacrée à une courte rétrospective historique de la notation de la musique du maqām. La troisième partie décrit divers outils d’analyse des hauteurs et du spectre d’une mélodie qui sont une aide à l’analyse – et à la compréhension, sinon à une meilleure écoute – de ces musiques. En conclusion l’auteur appelle à implémenter l’enseignement des analyses vidéo-animées de hauteurs dans l’enseignement courant de l’ethnomusicologie, comme outil principal d’analyse des musiques “autres”.
Le dossier est accompagné d’un fichier Power Point contenant quelques exemples d’analyse avec curseur se déplaçant horizontalement sur l’écran, et de 41 analyses vidéo dont le temps total s’élève à 2 heures et 13 minutes.
Rosy & Amine Beyhom participated in the 3rd International Musicological and Psaltic Conference on Psaltic Art of the Department of Psaltic Art and Musicology of the Volos Academy for Theological Studies.
The Conference took place in the Conference Center of the Holy Metropolis of Demetrias, in Melissiatika, Volos, Greece, between May 30th(official opening in the evening) and June 2nd(official closing in the afternoon), 2018.
Amine Beyhom presented a paper entitled “Theory and Practice of Psaltiki: Why do they not coincide?“, and assisted Rosy Beyhom for the recording of four Greek cantors who performed Kyrie Ekekraxa (by Petros Byzantios) and Axion estin (Anonymous).
The video-animated analyses of these chants will soon be published on our site as a further contribution to the development of alternative methods for the analysis of melodic music of the Mediterranean and around (maqām music).
Two additional Greek and Arabic versions (below) of the chant Kyrie Ekekraxa, the well known composition by Petros Byzantios in the 19th-century Constantinople (now Istanbul) performed in 2012 by Joseph Yazbeck. The audio recording was first published in Amine Beyhom’s book on Byzantine chant in 2015 (see http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/584).
As with other CERMAA animated analyses, the upper part offers a general view of the analysis (with two dashed lines for the tonic and octave pitches) while the lower part shows the detailed analysis which includes, in this case, an overprint of the Byzantine scale of the 1881 (Second) Reform of Byzantine chant.
Compare with other analyses of the same chant by different performers at http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/analyses/byzantine-chant/kyrie-ekekraxa-by-petros-byzantios.