Imagine: A Scientific Fantasy – or Video-Analysis from 2D to 3D on the example of a Huseynî Taksim performed by Neyzen Tevfik

This 46th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series (but the 47th to be made public – see features 3D graphic techniques as well as a short introduction explaining the scale used in the analysis. It is a demonstration of some of the possibilities offered by 3D handling of graphic analysis of melodies, on the example of a Huseynî Taksim performed by Neyzen Tevfik Kolayli, corresponding to track 11 on the CD 199 Kalan Müzik entitled Hiç’in Azâb-ı Mukaddes’i – Neyzen Tevfik (2000-2001). Note that a preliminary version was published privately February 8, 2019 on the YouTube channel of the CERMAA.

Neyzen Tevfik performing on ney: from CD 199 Kalan Müzik p. 55

The last sequence preceding the end credits proposes the following text:

now imagine what it would be if we could…
apply 3D graphic analysis and animation
to all aspects and characteristics of sound
stop, rewind, slow down the music and animation at will
zoom in, zoom out, keep selected characteristics
and look up each and all details from the desired point of view and, finally, apply all these to the analysis of multi-part music with each part shown separately, or together with other parts…

Amine Beyhom – “Imagine, a scientific fantasy”

A CERMAA production

Analysis, graphic design and editing: Amine Beyhom

Notes for the graphic representation

The pitch contour is shown as a black broken line in the 2D analysis, and in blueish color in the 3D analysis, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. In the 3D analysis, the pitch and intensity contours are showed in two parallel planes with a corresponding cursor for each of them. The graphic scale (see figure below) is based on on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals) and features to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here, and below), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, = DŪKĀ = d, = SĪKĀ = e, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = b and Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic (here ) is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables.

Explanations about the graphic scale used in the video
Copy of FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor: Extended solmization of the scale of maqām music. Columns from left to right: (1) Original (7 notes per octave) solmization proposed in 2012; (2) Names of the main notes of the scale (the burdāt of maqām RĀST); (3) Names of the intermediate notes between the burdāt (ʿarabāt); (4) Names of the intermediate notes between the ʿarabāt (tīk = raised, nīm = lowered); (5) number of the note in the scale of al-Ḥijāzī; (6) Extended solmization as proposed by the author; (7) Corresponding numbers of the notes in the “Modern” scale (Western-inspired on the base of the division of the half-tone in two equal parts). Note that RĀST equates with c while however not indicating a fixed (but a relative) pitch. Degrees tīk-KURDĪ, nīm-BŪSALĪK, tīk-ʿAJAM and nīm-NAHAFT figure on a gray background to underline the fact that the “Modern” theory of the scale does not acknowledge them: consequently, the intervals between adjacent notes in column (7) – the last to the right – differ one from another by one quarter-tone (theoretical). Lastly: the solmization of note NAHAFT was modified as to avoid creating a duplicate with the (main) note NAWĀ: KAWASHT is the equivalent of NAHAFT in the lower octave (below the RĀST). See also the tables in ‎FHT ‎‎54 of the aforementioned article for a complete review of the degrees of the two-octavial scale of maqām music
Excerpt from the liner notes: [p. 51, 53]

Neyzen Tevfik Kolayli was one of the most interesting and unusual personalities of Turkish Music, and is remembered as one of its “legendary heroes”. He was born in Bodrum on March 28, 1879, and died on January 28, 1953 in Istanbul, at the age of 74. His life was a series of adventures that might seem startling or at least incongruous to the common person. He might be found playing his ney one day in the Grand Vizier’s mansions with the repose of a king, and the next day on the street, a handkerchief spread out in front of him, playing for drinking money. […]

He was smitten at the early age of 7 by the voice of the ney, and was so bound by his passion for this voice that it was the most basic element of his existence. From surviving recordings, as well as awe-filled testimonies of those writers who heard him play, we can gain some idea of how that passionate bond moved him.

Mehmet Ergün – Translated by Bob Beer

Video Analysis

Literal description of the performance

Note in the analysis below that s_a = “Analysis time in seconds”; s_v = “Video time in seconds” ; “tpps” = “Theoretical Position of the Pitch on the Scale”; furthermore, the upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or genos) rāst (lowercase). Further explanations can be found at and

Note also that, due to two factors which are the accompanying cello and the bad condition of the recording, all details of the analysis could not be reproduced and that the reproduction of the tonic of the scale performed by the neyist may – among other characteristics – be slightly influenced by the (lower) tonic performed with the cello (see figure below in which the tonic is too low around 70 s_a).

Frame showing the reproduction of the tonic of the maqām as performed by the ney (beg. 70 s_a), here influenced by the lower tonic of the cello

General analysis

On the general ascending scale of maqām Ḥusaynī dū (d) 3344334 (in multiples of the quarter-tone – concatenated) the performer begins with a jump of fourth from (d) to na (g) then to the fifth ḥu (a) and ascends to the upper Ja (F) then exposes the descending scale till lower  (C) (thus defining the span of the performance, i.e. one octave + fifth, with exceptional rises to the upper Na – G – at 130 and 137 s_a) while returning to the central ḥu (a) and stabilizing around it with various developments until the return (at 51 s_a) to the tonic. Follows a display of the different subdivisions of the maqām scale and a display of virtuoso techniques, including an extended (in time) portamento from (below) the upper Ja (F) to the upper (d) [111-119 s_a] followed by developments on rā (c) (c. 130 s_a – probably a jins rāst 433[4] leading to the upper Na – G), while returning to the main development of the scale from 152 to 162 s_a (with modulations) followed by the conclusion of the performance (164-188 s_a) on the tonic (d).

Parts I and II are balanced (about 80 seconds each) with a shorter (25 seconds) conclusive part.

A (more) Detailed analysis:

Part I from 0 to 79 s_a (77 to 156 s_v): The initial sub-part (I.I) of Part I of the performance consists in a development of the scale of maqām Ḥusaynī with an initial jump of fourth from (d) to na (g) then a call from fourth to the fifth ḥu (a – 1-2 s_a) followed by a modified bayāt genos [ḥu – a – 334 + 33] resulting in a low in portamento to the “tpps” (“Theoretical Position of the Pitch on the Scale”) around 7 s_a (see also at 9 s_a), then a descending development of the scale from the octave tonic (D) suggesting a būsalīk aspect of the descending na to (g to d) part [424 on dū=d] – because of the low na (g), ja (f) and (dū=d is frequently, if not systematically, lower than the tpps which confirms the handling of the maqām as a plagal maqām Bayāt centered on ḥu=a). Rise beg. 11 s_a at DŪKĀ (t-zi=d) in būsalīk [424] with always low ja (t-bū=f) and na (t-ḥij=g) – note also the low (g) at 15 s_a. Then comes a descending development of the upper genos bayāt (beg. 16 s_a) with beautiful descending portamentos from aw+ (b) to ḥu (a) around 18 and 20 s_a, with a concluding first part (21-30 s_a) with a confirmation of the lower būsalīk on t-zi (=d) closing on ḥu (26-28 s_a). Note: (e) and ḥu (a) are here pivotal notes which remain stable throughout this first part.

The second sub-part (I.II) starts with a similar initial call from fourth to fifth while it however hints a lower na (“n-na”=t-ḥij=g at 29.5 s_a) with a similar also hint of low (“n-rā”=t-ka=c) rising to (c) at around 35 s_a – repeated around 37 s_a – during the development of the upper bayāt (ḥu=a 334). In the descending development of this genos undertaken by the performer beg. 37 s_a, a ʿaj=bb (“n-aw” is first hinted, then confirmed at 41 s_a in what becomes a descending nahawand (or būsalik) genos on na [na=g 424] extended below to the ja=f [ja 4424] which transforms it in a ʿajam tetrachord on ja=f (43-44 s_a) and back (45-49 s_a) to bayāt [334] on =d and a confirmation of ḥu=a as pivotal degree of the scale, and closing (around 51 s_a) on t-bū (f). In both upper and lower part of the scale, for these two initial sub-parts (from 0 to 50 s_a), subtle changes in pitches and the use of portamentos create constant variations between the use of lower (than ḥu=a) bayāt [=d 334] and būsalīk [=d – or t-zi 424] tetrachords with a definite tendency to shift from “minor” (nahawand or būsalik) to “zalzalian” (bayāt tetrachord) with occasional hints of “major” (ʿajam tetrachord) aspects, the latter being underlined by the change in the accompaniment by the cello (from predominant ḥu=a to ja=f=t-bū) at c. 50 s_a.

While the third sub-part (I.III) starts like the first two with a na-ḥu (g-a) call, it concentrates at first (around 60 s_a) on the upper part of the scale with a development of rāst [433] on (c), immediately followed by a reaffirmation of the Ḥusaynī character of the maqām with a hint of rāst [433] on na=g (63 s_a) centered on ḥu=a and with a closing bayāt [334] on =d reaffirming the (lower, around 71 s_a) tonic of the maqām, followed (73 s_a) by a reversed jump from ḥu to na (a to g) and a brisk display of the ascending (from aw to Ja – b to F) then (complete) descending scale, closing (78 s_a) with the (d).

Part II from 83 to 162 s_a (160 to 239 s_v): The different feeling of the second part (beg. 83 s_a) is announced by a jump of fourth from na to (g to c) with a development of the (upper) rāst [=c 433] and a rapid display of the (descending till lower =C) scale stabilizing on (the upper) =c (93-94 s_a), then a variation stabilizing on the (upper) =D with a pentachordal rāst [na=g 4334] closing (108 s_a) the first sub-part II.I. Follows (beg. 110 s_a) the second (II.II) sub-part which consists in an approach of the upper rāst [=c 433] from below the tpps with a beautiful rising then descending portamento from t-Bū=F to Ku=Eb stabilizing on =D after tackling the lower two degrees, and variations in the upper bayāt [=D 33] beg. 120 s_a and a virtuoso display of the (descending then ascending) lower octave + 1 (reaching the lower =C) scale insisting (around 127 s_a) on the unresolved (upper) =c and upper rāst [=c 4334] with a nearly continuous descending portamento from (upper) Ḥu+ (A+) to (lower) ḥu=a (137-140 s_a) which shifts (140 s_a) to a trill between aw=b and =c followed by a very short (in time) ascending bayāt [ḥu=a 334] stabilizing on =D (142 s_a), and a modulation to kurd on ḥu=a [ḥu 244] from 143 to 148 s_a, suddenly modulating (with a change in the accompaniment) to rāst [433] on na stabilizing (149 s_a) on =c, followed (152 s_a) after a short silence by a būsalīk [424] on =d beginning (and insisting) on the central bū=eb, and closing with a double ascending call of fifth from (lower) to na (C to g) then na=g to (upper) =D (155-158 s_a) followed by a descending call of octave and a closing ascending call of fifth (159 s_a) from =d to the stabilized ḥu=a.

Part III: Conclusion from 164 to 188 s_a (241 to 265 s_v): The closing part is initiated by a jump of third (165 s_a) from na (g) to aw+ (≈b) ascending to =D followed by the display in portamento (167-170 s_a) of the descending scale of the maqām till the central (“plagal”) tonic ḥu=a then an ascending pentacordal rāst [4334] on na=g, followed (170-173 s_a) by the descending scale featuring a bū=eb in place of the ja=f, followed (175-183 s_a) by variations between būsalīk [424] and bayāt [334] on =d with a (pre-) final (ascending) call of octave Ḥu-ḥu (A-a) and a final descent (184-187 s_a) from the ḥu=a to the tonic (d at 187-188 s_a).

Imagine: A Scientific Fantasy 2 ‎–‎ A video-analysis in 3D of Hurrian Song H6 performed by Lara Jokhadar

This 47th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series is an anniversary video to commemorate the beginning of video-analyses at the CERMAA. It features 3D graphical techniques as well as a short introduction explaining the scale(s) used in the analysis. It is a sequel to the 46th video-analysis –‎ the first in the 3D series –‎ the publication of which is delayed. It is also a 3D remake of the first video-analysis by the CERMAA, featuring an alternate take of Hurrian Song H6 performed by Lara Jokhadar and arranged by Richard Dumbrill, Amine Beyhom and Rosy Azar Beyhom in 2012. Further details are explained below (the scale) and in the video as such, as well as in the original post for the first video-analysis.

Explanations about the graphic scale used for the 3D video-analysis of Hurrian Song H6 3D performed by Lara Jokhadar

The last sequence preceding the end credits proposes the following text:

now imagine what it would be if we could apply 3D graphic analysis and animation to all aspects and characteristics of sound; stop, rewind, slow down the music and animation at will, zoom in, zoom out, keep selected characteristics and look up each and all details from the desired point of view and, finally, apply all these to the analysis of multi-part music, with each part shown separately, or together with other parts…

Amine Beyhom, “Imagine A scientific fantasy”

3D video-analysis of Hurrian Song H6 performed by Lara Jokhadar: take 4 recorded on the 21st of October 2012 by Amine Beyhom

A CERMAA production

Video Analysis (

Call for Papers for NEMO-Online issue No. 8 (November 2019) / Appel à Contributions pour ‎NEMO-Online n°8 (Novembre 2019)‎


[French translation below]

Research centres and groups CERMAA, ICONEA and IReMus are delighted to inform you that the main theme for number eight of NEMO-Online will be: Music as science or music as art? This question has brought up controversy for centuries. It seems useful to apprehend what is the current position of music and musicology about this conundrum.

Other themes are also proposed:

  1. The concepts and terminology of musicology and their evolution
    1. Variations on the linguistics of musicology. Have homophonic terms in various languages and different cultures the same meaning ?
      • Collation of a multilingual lexicon taking these linguistic variations into account.
    2. Differing perceptions in different times and spaces for terms such as ‘heterophony’, ‘polyphony’, ‘monody’, or ‘diatonic’, ‘chromatic’, ‘enharmonic’, etc.?
    3. Difference between ‘law’ and ‘rule’
    4. Others
  2. Musicology in the Arabian World aside countries having an established musicological structure such as the Lebanon and Tunisia.
    1. ‎Music and musicology in the Maghrib, countries of the Persian Gulf, Syria.
    2. ‎‎Byzantine and related chanting, such as syriac, coptic, etc.
    3. Others
  3. Common practice of maqām
    1. The Mediterranean and the Balkans
    2. Turkic and Persian worlds
    3. Indian, Chinese and others
    4. Beyond the Western Mediterranean

Articles for this issue will be published according to their evaluation and layout for the internet. NEMO-Online No. 8 will collate articles published and in the course of editing and will be printed in November 2020 as part of the fifth volume (NEMO-Online Nos. 8 & 9).

Languages an rules : click here.
Please send proposals for articles to Richard Dumbrill and Amine Beyhom before end of May 2019.

Deadline for papers: end of July 2019.

Additionally, the Editorial Board will consider special extraneous contributions as long as they fit within the general aim of the publication.

Previous volumes are available here. (Please note that Volume 4, Nos 6&7 is now available in print.) Individual papers are available from the Articles tab on the NEMO-Online site.



Les centres et groupes de recherches CERMAA, ICONEA et IReMus ont le plaisir d’annoncer le thème principal du no 8 de NEMO-Online : Musique en tant que science ou musique en tant qu’art ? Cette question soulève la controverse depuis des millénaires, et il semblerait utile de faire un état des lieux de la pensée musicologique et musicale à ce sujet.

D’autres thèmes sont proposés, sur le long terme, à partir de ce numéro et continueront de complémenter le thème principal :

  1. Les concepts et la terminologie de la musicologie et leur évolution historique :
    1. Variations linguistiques de la terminologie (les « mêmes » termes veulent-ils dire la même chose dans différentes langues ou différentes cultures ?)
      • Établissement d’un lexique multilingue et/ou d’un dictionnaire critique de la musicologie prenant en compte ces variations
    2. Perceptions différentes dans le temps et l’espace de termes comme « hétérophonie », « polyphonie », « monodie », ou encore « diatonique », « chromatique », « enharmonique », etc. ?
    3. La différence entre « loi » et « règle » dans différentes langues et à différentes époques
    4. Autres
  2. Musicologie du Monde Arabe hors pays ayant des structures établies en musicologie (tels le Liban et la Tunisie) :‎
    1. ‎Musique et musicologie du Maghreb, des pays du Golfe arabo-persique, de la Syrie
    2. ‎Chant byzantin et dérivés, chant syriaque, chant copte, etc.‎
    3. Autres
  3. Tronc commun du maqām:
    1. Méditerranée et Balkans
    2. Mondes turcique et persan
    3. Affinités indiennes, chinoises ou autres
    4. Au-delà de la Méditerranée européenne

Les articles de ce numéro seront publiés au fur et à mesure de leur réception-évaluation-préparation pour la publication internet. NEMO-Online No 8 rassemblera les articles parus et en cours de parution et sera publié en novembre 2020, comme partie du Volume 5 (NEMO-Online Nos 8 & 9).

Langues et normes : voir ici.
Envoi des propositions d’articles à Richard Dumbrill et à Amine Beyhom avant : fin mai 2019.

Date limite d’envoi des articles : fin juillet 2019.

La rédaction acceptera également d’examiner des dossiers spéciaux ou des articles hors-thème, du moment qu’ils concernent la thématique générale de la revue.

Les volumes précédents sont disponibles ici, les articles individuels dans l’onglet Articles sur le site de NEMO-Online. Veuillez noter que le Volume 4, Nos 6&7 est désormais disponible en version imprimée.


New article/Dossier: MAT for the VIAMAP – Maqām Analysis Tools for the Video-Animated Music Analysis Project


[French translation below]

NEMO-Online is delighted to propose this new article by Amine Beyhom on notational tools and graphical analyses of melody and rythm.

Musical notation has been reputed as disqualified for the analysis of “Foreign” musics since – at least – the experiments of Charles Seeger with the Melograph. It is nevertheless still used as the main analytic – and teaching – tool for these musics in most researches in musicology, and today in the teaching of these musics in autochthonous conservatories. Seeger’s experiments brought at his time cutting-edge solutions – and alternatives – to score notation but, surprisingly enough, these solutions seem to have not worked out very well in the long run.

Beyhom proposes a voluminous dossier including three parts and relying on the pioneering works of Seeger – and other ethnomusicologists – as well as on the improvements of his method that we have witnessed in the last decades. The first part expounds the past, and on-going debates about the (mis-) use of score notation as applied to “Foreign” musics, while the second part offers a retrospective of Maqām music notation. The third part of the dossier describes different tools of pitch and spectrum analysis which help understand – and listen better to the analyzed music while exposing, in fine, the author’s work and propositions for the implementation of video-animated analyses in the teaching of ethnomusicology as one major basis for this teaching. The dossier is accompanied by a short power point show (PPS) and 41 video-animated analyses (total time = 2 h 13 m).

Amine Beyhom: MAT for the VIAMAP – Maqām Analysis Tools for the Video-Animated Music Analysis Project,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 7 |2018-11| p. 145–256.


Nous avons le plaisir à NEMO-Online de publier ce nouvel article par Amine Beyhom sur les outils de notation et d’analyse graphique de la mélodie et du rythme.

La notation musicale est réputée être disqualifiée pour les analyses de musique “étrangères” et ce depuis, au moins, les expériences de Charles Seeger avec le mélographe. Il n’en reste pas moins que la notation classique reste l’outil principal d’analyse de ces musiques dans les recherches musicologiques, et de leur enseignement dans les conservatoires locaux. Les méthodes de Seeger étaient à l’avant-garde de la recherche pour une analyse –  et une notation – alternative des musiques traditionnelles mais, de manière assez surprenante, ne semblent pas avoir pris racine dans l’enseignement de l’ethnomusicologie.

Beyhom propose un dossier volumineux en trois parties, basé sur l’oeuvre pionnière de Seeger – et d’autres ethnomusicologues – ainsi que sur les améliorations de cette méthode apportées au fil des recherches par ses successeurs. La première partie retrace les débats soulevés par l’utilisation (ou non) de la notation musicale classique pour les musique non occidentales – notamment non semi-tonales – tandis que la deuxième partie est consacrée à une courte rétrospective historique de la notation de la musique du maqām. La troisième partie décrit divers outils d’analyse des hauteurs et du spectre d’une mélodie qui sont une aide à l’analyse – et à la compréhension, sinon à une meilleure écoute – de ces musiques. En conclusion l’auteur appelle à implémenter l’enseignement des analyses vidéo-animées de hauteurs dans l’enseignement courant de l’ethnomusicologie, comme outil principal d’analyse des musiques “autres”.

Le dossier est accompagné d’un fichier Power Point contenant quelques exemples d’analyse avec curseur se déplaçant horizontalement sur l’écran, et de 41 analyses vidéo dont le temps total s’élève à 2 heures et 13 minutes.

Amine Beyhom: MAT for the VIAMAP – Maqām Analysis Tools for the Video-Animated Music Analysis Project,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 4 7 |2018-11| p. 145–256.